Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Animal Testing Essay Example for Free

Animal Testing Essay Abdulrahman.Bahjat AUIS August 5, 2013 We are at war, and we will do what we need to win (joey-gruber.tripod). There is much debate over whether animal testing should be allowed or not. Some people think that it is not essential to sacrifice animals for human benefit because they are being abused and tortured severely during experiments. Those People who stand against animal testing claim that humans eliminate many lives on Earth in order to safe humans lives, So there is no justice because even animals have the right to live on earth, yet these people do not consider the truth that animals are being used in the food industry. Many organizations such as (PETA), which is the biggest organization against animal testing, think that animal testing is one of the most disturbing experiments ever, and it should be banned. However, these organizations absolutely do not look at the big picture because animal testing uses only common pests to test on, improves health and medicine, and ensures the safety of cosmetic products for the human use. Many organizations claim that animal testing reduces animals numbers and lead them to face extinction. In addition, these people say that through animal testing humans destroy the lives of many organisms. However, researchers use only pests in their experiments to test on. Animal testing gives humans more benefit by decreasing the pests to humans. 60% of all animals are mice and 20% are rats and guinea pigs and rabbits are 10% all together(PETA). This claim comes from an organization which is surprisingly stands against animal testing. The statistic above shows that animal testing does not damage animals on our planet. Many diseases are being transmitted to humans by these pests like rats. One of the most historically dangerous rat-borne diseases is the bubonic plague, also called â€Å"Black Plague,† and its variants†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. fleas transported on rats are considered responsible for this plague during the Middle Ages, which killed millions(Orkin). It is really obvious that many people know what happened during the Middle Ages when Black Plague spread over London. It was one of the historical diseases that killed thousands of people, so we can avoid such these devastating diseases by reducing rats numbers simultaneously with getting benefit to our race. Many people think that animal testing does not  improve human health and medicine, and it is only used to develop silly things, such as toiletries. Also, those people think that humans cannot ensure the safety of drugs through animal testing because they say that humans do not have completely similar body to animals. However, those people do not know the fact that is the major pro for animal testing is helping researchers in creating drugs and treatments to improve human health and medicine. Animal testing is very essential to many scientific communities. In fact, there are many people who stand against animal testing for cosmetic products, but still support animal testing for medicine function. Many medical treatments, especially for cancer and HIV drugs are being found through animal testing (About Animal Testing). These diseases that I listed above are the most severe diseases that humans ever known because they have been suffered from, but through animal testing scientists are making great progress to figure out drugs that can end the tragedy of these diseases. Animal testing helps to ensure the safety of drugs and many other substances humans (About Animal Testing). Basically, drugs can carry a great danger to humans if they are used without any assurance of its safety. This means that through animal testing we can prevent the potential danger of drugs simultaneously with saving many human lives. Furthermore, some people think that we cannot ensure the safety of cosmetic products for human uses because humans and animals do not have completely similarities outside structure between them which may lead to many mistakes after using these products. However, those people do not look at the details which are the ones that matter. When scientists use animals to test on, they really do not care about the external structure, but they really care about the common organs and physical traits. Through animal testing we can test even the first toilet paper in order to know whether these products are safe for human use. Researchers often work with animal models that have biological systems similar to that of a human(Amprogress). This is why scientists use animals as models to test on because the common similarities that humans and animals have. It is really an inevitable fact that even if humans find out new methods of testing, companies will restore animal testing on new products to ensure full safety of any product (cosmeticproduct-europe). Animal testing is an irreplaceable, and without it we can rarely achieve full safety insurance. It is really important to test all cosmetic products  on animals because these products are usually chemical products that carry danger with them. In conclusion, I think that animal testing is really needed to improve the quality of societies, and that can be achieved by the results and discoveries of animal testing. Animal testing is a great way to find out how a living body reacts to different products which can help us to find out whether these products are safe to be used by humans, so if humans want to develop their communities, animal testing cannot be avoided. Cited Work: 1-Joey Gruber Tripod, http://joey-gruber.tripod.com/id2.html# 2-Peta, http://www.peta.org/search/SearchResults.aspx?q=statistics 3-Orkin, http://www.orkin.com/rodents/rats/rat-borne-diseases/ 4-About animal testing, http://www.aboutanimaltesting.co.uk/using-animals-testing-pros-versus-cons.html 5- Amprogress, http://www.amprogress.org/AnimalResearchFAQ 6- Cosmeticproduct-europe, http://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Formulation-Science/L-Oreal-animal-testing-alternatives-vital-but-ensuring-product-safety-is-a-MUST

Difference Between Criminal And Civil Procedure Law Essay

Difference Between Criminal And Civil Procedure Law Essay Law is a set of general rules which are created by a superior entity in order to regulate human behaviour and maintain justice and peace in the society. Law applies to everyone living in a particular territory  [1]  . There are as many legal systems in the world as countries, but for academic reasons we classify them into three main categories: Continental (Civil, Romano-Germanic) legal system, Common (Anglo-American) legal system and Religious legal system. Law can be split up in different branches such as, Criminal law, Civil law, Commercial law, etc. In this essay I will discuss the differences between Criminal and Civil procedure in Continental and Common legal system. Continental legal system is the oldest and most widely implemented legal system in the world. It derives from Roman law, Canon law and Commercial law. The Roman law started its contribution by the XII Tables which were published in 450 B.C. Later in the year 530 Justinian codified Roman law by publishing Corpus Juris Civilis. According to Justinian Roman law consisted of Ius Civile the body of laws which applied to local citizens, Ius Gentium the laws which applied to foreigners and Ius Naturale the body of laws that were considered common to all human beings  [2]  . The Canon law was developed by the Church in order to administrate and monitor the rights and obligations of the people. The needs and interests of merchants lead to the development of Commercial law. The historical sources of concepts, institutions, and procedures come from these three sub traditions. Today it is dominant in most parts of Western Europe, all of central and South America, many parts of Asia and Afric a. Continental legal system has influenced the laws of specific nations, the law of international organizations and international law. The main feature of this legal system is that all the laws are codified (i.e. written down). Common Legal System: The Common law system is one of the most influential legal systems of the world. Before 1066 in England there was no legal system, instead it was based upon oral customary rules, which varied from region to region. In 1154, Henry II institutionalised common law by establishing a unified court system which was common to the whole country. The common-law system exists in England, the United States, and other countries which were colonized by England. This makes it one of the most widespread legal systems in the world. Common Law system is mainly based on the case law or judicial precedent, this system doesnt use legislation as a primary source of law instead legislation for them is a clarification of legal rules and principles which are essentially derived from case law/judicial precedents. In this type of legal system law is developed on a case-by-case basis. In the common law system the solution to a case becomes a part of the law. This concept is known as Stare Decisis. Difference between Common and Continental Legal system: In the Common legal system the judges have very broad interpretive power. However in the Continental legal system the judges serve as civil servants who receive salary and belong to an organization of judges  [3]  . In Continental legal system all the laws are written and codified, and unlike Common legal system they are not determined by the judges. Instead they are determined by the parliament. Legislation is the primary source of law and the court system is not adversarial (i.e. the judge takes an active part in the hearings/trials). Also in the Continental legal system any updates to the laws must be made through legislation or some other long process. While in the common law system laws can be changed/updated by single rulings. This allows the common legal system to develop faster than the continental legal system. In the Continental legal system there is a major difference between public and private law. Private law includes the rules governing civil and commercial relation ships, whereas Public law consists of matters that concern the government. Similarly in Common legal system there is a difference in private and public law; however the process is slightly different. Substantive and Procedural Law: There are two main categories within law known as substantive law and procedural law. Substantive law deals with creating and defining the rights and obligations of individuals and parties. It refers to all categories of public and private law. On the other hand, procedural law is the body of legal rules which regulates the process of determining the rights and obligations of parties. Procedural law is also referred to as adjective law  [4]  . It is made up of state or federal statues, rules proclaimed by courts and standards established by constitutional law  [5]  . Common legal system pays more attention to procedural law than to substantive law. However, substantive law plays a vital role in Continental legal system. Criminal Law and Procedure: Criminal law is the body of rules and statues which define the conduct which is prohibited by the state/government because it may harm the society/public. It is a welfare that establishes punishment which will be imposed if this law is broken. Criminal procedure states the rule under which criminal cases are conducted. It involves investigation, prosecution, adjudication and the punishment of the crimes. A regular criminal proceeding, in the Continental legal system, is divided into three main parts: the investigating phase, the examining phase and the trial. The public prosecutor conducts the investigative phase and also takes an active part in the examining phase, which is supervised by the examining judge. This phase is mainly written and it determines whether there is a need for a trial or not  [6]  . The trial is a relatively brief and informal affair conducted by a judge without a jury. The defendant does not necessarily have the right to keep silent. Sometimes the trial do es not require all the witnesses to be present and may last in excess of a year. On the other hand, in the Common legal system a criminal proceeding starts with a police investigation which is aimed at collecting evidence that will prove the defendant guilty. Then an adversarial trial is conducted before either a judge or a jury. The attorneys conduct the trial and try to convince the judge in their favour. The trial is continuous and the evidence against the defendant must be presented by live witnesses in court. One of the basic differences in criminal procedure in Common legal system and Continental legal system is that, the judge in Continental legal system plays a more active role in determining the facts of the case (i.e. takes an active part in the proceedings) while the contrary is true for Common legal system. Also, the continental legal system relies more on written argument than on oral argument. However, in the common legal system everything in the trial is primarily oral. Civil Law and Procedure: Civil law is the body of rules that delineates the private law (e.g. contract law, property law, family law, etc.). It is opposed to criminal or public law. Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow while judging civil lawsuits (i.e. non-criminal matters). It administers how a lawsuit/case will be carried out (i.e. the whole process). It is a general part of the private law and can be exercised by anyone to impose, redress or protect their legal rights. In the Continental law civil procedure is found in codes, whereas in the Common legal system it is found in rules of court made under statutory powers. Historically, in the Common legal system civil procedure lawsuits included a jury and a judge. The matter of law was reserved for the decision of the judge and the matters of fact for the jury. Even though, this practice is greatly discontinued in most of the modern Common legal countries the United States still employ it. The litigatio n is commenced by means of a document drawn up by the claimant which is then validated by the court. Hereafter, pleadings are followed by disclosure (i.e. disclosing evidence to the other party). Trial is usually lead by a hearing in which problems arising in pretrial procedure might be determined and attempts to compromise are made. In Continental legal system trial by jury is unknown and the litigation is usually conducted by a multijudge court. The issues of law are often determined by a series of hearings. The prominence is more on written evidence than on oral presentation  [7]  . Difference between Criminal and Civil Procedure: In criminal lawsuits, the litigation is always filed by the state, whereas in civil lawsuits a private party files the litigation and becomes the claimant. In criminal lawsuits a guilty defendant is punished by either imprisonment, fine paid to the state or death penalty (exceptional cases). On the other hand, the losing defendant in civil lawsuits is generally supposed to reimburse for the losses caused to the claimant. In criminal lawsuits the burden of proof is always on the state (i.e. the state must prove that the defendant is guilty), since the defendant is assumed to be innocent until proven guilty. However, in the civil lawsuits the burden of proof is initially on the claimant, but in some cases it shifts to the defendant. In criminal cases the defendant is protected by a number of protections which are specified in the constitution (or legislation). But in civil cases there are no protections offered to defendants. Another difference between criminal and civil lawsuits is th at, criminal cases have to be proven beyond reasonable doubt. Civil cases only have to be proven on the balance of probabilities  [8]  . It can be seen that there are many differences in the Common legal system and the Continental legal system. These differences exist not only in their historical background but also in their approach to legal matters. I personally believe the procedures are flexible and the parties to the case enjoy more rights and obligations in Common Law system, since the Judge refers to a previously held similar cases and the legislation is not codified. As we know, there are clearly many differences between Common and Continental legal systems, however it should be noted that in the recent times both systems have started to converge in their use of the sources of law. As De Cruz (1999) mentions, in the recent times the English legal system has started to give more significance to legislation. On the other hand the Continental legal system has also started to rely on precedents, especially in German constitutional and French administrative courts. Thus, this leads us to think that there is a possi bility of the legal systems converging together. This concept is known as the Convergence theory. This might be possible in some aspects, however not completely because of the enormous difference in ideology, social and economic policies, morality and many other things.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Irritable Bowel Syndrome :: essays research papers fc

Irritable Bowel Syndrome Introduction to IBS Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder of the intestines that leads to crampy pain, gassiness, Bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Some people with IBS have constipation. Others have diarrhea or frequent loose stools, often with an urgent need to move the bowels and some people experience both. Sometimes the person with IBS has a crampy urge to move the bowels but cannot do so. As much as 20% of the US population suffers from irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common digestive disorders disorders in North America. Over three millions doctor visits are made each year due to IBS. Almost 50% of referrals to a gastroemterologist are for irritable bowel syndrome. Twice as many women suffer from irritable bowel syndrome than do men. Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome usually start early in life. Half the patients have symptoms before they reach the age of 30. Through the years, IBS has been called by many names -- colitis, mucous colitis, spastic colon, spastic bowel, and functional bowel disease. Most of these terms are inaccurate. Colitis, for instance, means inflammation of the large intestine (colon). IBS, however, does not cause inflammation and should not be confused with ulcerative colitis, which is a more serious disorder. The cause of IBS is not known, and as yet there is no cure. Doctors call it a functional disorder because there is no sign of disease when the colon is examined. IBS causes a great deal of discomfort and distress, but it does not cause permanent harm to the intestines and does not lead to intestinal bleeding of the bowel or to a serious disease such as cancer. Often IBS is just a mild annoyance, but for some people it can be disabling. They may be afraid to go to social events, to go out to a job, or to travel even short distances. Most people with IBS, however, are able to control their symptoms through diet, stress management, and sometimes with medications prescribed by their physicians. Causes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome The colon, which is about 6 feet long, connects the small intestine with the rectum and anus. The major function of the colon is to absorb water and salts from digestive products that enter from the small intestine. Two quarts of liquid matter enter the colon from the small intestine each day.

Monday, August 19, 2019

what to do about education Essay -- essays research papers

What to do about Funding in Public Schools The public school system in America has long has been an issue of discussion amongst people everywhere. The school system is something we deal with in every state and city in America. It is one system in our country that is in need of great evaluation when it comes to the issue of funding. There are funding gaps that are so large from school to school when it comes to the issue of funding that we have some schools that are barley in suitable living conditions, have the oldest materials and are very understaffed to schools that have the best of everything in every aspect to include the teachers. Is this the type of unbalanced system you want your kids in? People often complain that we need to do something about, give more funding here or there, but the problem surrounding school funding is that we often distribute funding in the wrong way. Well I say it is time we as a whole step up and do something about it; I say we move to a voucher system to develop some competition within public education. If we do not act on making our schools more equally funded we will put ourselves in a downward spiral until only a few schools are able to provide an adequate education to our youth, I mean come on our nations children already lag behind in many standardized test when compared to other countries. We need to seize our chance to improve on this now because if we let it slide I can guarantee you the problem will only worsen and the public education in our country will only fail. We need to setup a system based more on competition so we can get the schools to want to give our youth a good education. Now many people may oppose to the idea of making schools â€Å"compete† for students with the voucher system. They would say that this may be too expensive or it would take away the idea of public schooling and not make it free in the sense that we think of school as free. Many would say it would be turning the public school system into a â€Å"business.† While I do agree that it would turn the public school system into a business I do not agree that it would take away from our schools being public in the most literal sense of the word. But it would give people a good way to have a little power in the public system because it would allow parents to decide where they would send their children, not the state. It would also add some incentive for ... ... given a better education simply because his or her parents make more money. That does not make a child smarter, rather more privileged. And I thought schools did not cater to the students. Well that is what the system seems to be doing at this point.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I feel the subject of school funding is one that is in need of serious evaluation. And I feel that the voucher system is the best way we can tackle the subject. Now instead of just talking about making reforms we can go ahead with it and actually do something about it. Our schools need to better prepare out students for their lives. The only foreseeable way to do this would be to impose the voucher system. Without it there will be no competition among schools and there will be no more advancement than there currently is. If we have competition this will encourage improvement among our children, it will make them come up with new ideas and push to really make themselves the best students they can be. In closing I must say that all children are different, so we need to treat them all different and appeal to how each of them learns. If we do not do that then we are keeping ourselves in that downward spiral.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Dinner Party :: Personal Narrative Companies Business Papers

Dinner Party I walked out into my dinning room where I had been mulling over the table all day. I wanted everything to be just so. I glanced at the place settings for the hundredth time, trying to decide if I should sit Alfred Zingale and Matthias Arndt next to each other. It wasn’t that I was worried about conflicting views, actually it was quiet the contrary, and I didn’t want them to be able to double team the other guests. Finally I decided that just because they have essentially the same opinions, I wouldn’t separate them. In my mind they come as a unit because they had co-authored a book. The place cards had been set and I made up my mind that I would do no more rearranging. I bent over the table in my grey sleeveless dress and lit the deep red candles that were extending upward out of the floral arrangement. The guests would be arriving soon and I began to think over the whole situation. Each person has written a book about the dot com industry, how they can b e successful as well as how to invest wisely in one. I was hoping to learn a lot of information so I could make a good decision on whether my company would benefit from being online. These thoughts drifted through my head until the doorbell rang. I opened the door to a short plump woman with reddish brown hair in her late 40’s was standing on my stoop. She wore a pale green dress suit, but looked quite attractive. She extended her arm, shook my hand and introduced herself as Anita Rosen. As the only woman who was attending the dinner party that night, it was a given who she was, but all the same she was quite pleasant. John Cassidy was next to arrive. He looked like the typical â€Å"guy next door† type. I bet he could have been pulled straight from a magazine. He wore a blue knit sweater vest. As soon as he was in the door, the bell rang for the final time. Zingale and Arndt stood at the door. Zingale was thin with a moustache, black hair parted on the side. Arndt wore glasses, was shorter and much plumper.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Is stress necessary to motivate us

I do not agree that stress is necessary to motivate us. I get motivation from being stress-free. I have better days when I am not stressed. I am happy and joyful, instead of angry and frustrated. When I get stressed I just am down or angry and don't want to be bothered. I have kids, and they can tell when I have a stressful day because it shows on my face. Then they are not happy and I just get more stressed then before. If people did not feel any stress their productive levels would probably be very good.Getting things done eliminates worries. If you are not stressed than you can focus on getting done what needs to be done. I think my ideal level of stress is when I am so fed up I want to explode. If I start to cry and I just feel like I can't take anymore, my stress level is very high. I try to control my stress level, and try to be a very happy person. That's how I like to be. Under no circumstances is it ever acceptable to treat coworkers or employees differently because of their differences.You should never judge a book by its cover before taking the time to read it. Our differences are what make us who we are. You and your coworkers are not going to see everything the same, so you should take in their differences, and accept them as they are. I think you should recognize coworker or employees openly. Everybody has something they do one way, and the next person does it another way. It is okay to take in others judgment, and look at it as a positive, and not a negative thought.

Friday, August 16, 2019

IKEA Looks to Further Penetrate the U.S. Market

Given the SWOT analysis presented in the case, what are IKEA’s key competitive advantages? What strategic focus should the company take as it looks to further expand into the U. S. market? * IKEA’s low cost structure has been the very core of its success. It’s low-cost and high-quality strategy fits with the current state of the economy. Offering convenience factors within IKEA’s stores would fit well with IKEA’s low cost structure. It maintains its low-cost business model by creating a different furniture shopping experience. IKEA supplies customers with all possible materials needed to complete their shopping when they enter the store (that are, measuring tape, paper, pencils, catalogs, strollers, and shopping bags). Although IKEA is not set up as a traditional furniture store, the company does provide several added amenities. There is no denying that brand image is a key strength for IKEA. IKEA considers the environmental impact of every step in its business processes by making products that are environmentally conscientious and cost-effective. * To further expand into U. S. arket, IKEA must address two key issues. The first is the overwhelming individuality of U. S. consumers. Further expansion into the U. S. market will require IKEA to adapt its offerings and stores to local tastes. The second key issue is quality. Although American consumers are increasingly value-driven, they also demand quality products. Many Americans view self-assembled furniture as being lower in quality, and similar to the type s of furniture one might buy at Walmart or Target. 2. What factor is the biggest reason for IKEA’s growth and popularity: value or image? What can IKEA do to sustain growth after it loses some cache? * There is no denying that brand image is a key strength for IKEA. Even if they have not been in a store, most people around the globe recognize the blue and yellow logo as a symbolic representation of trendy, modern, and fashionable furniture which have been based on Swedish home-based clean and efficient service. * Diversification can be a good way that IKEA does to sustain growth after it loses some cache. Product innovation and market development such as IKEA’s expanding goal in U. S. market. It is a risky strategy but with careful selection of the right kind of businesses, considerable improvements in profitability can be experienced. To try and maintain growth, IKEA is considering diversification outside of the furniture market. 3. What strategic alternatives would you suggest IKEA employ to further penetrate the U. S. market? * Add more services to enhance customers’ experience, and implement a customer relationship management system to track current customers and communicate with them. Keep IKEA’s brand image and focus on correct placement of stores. Expand product lines to flank the budget line with a higher-priced line. Clever advertising and promotion. 4. Speculate on what will happen at IKEA stores as they are adapted to fit local tastes. Is the company’s trade-off of service for low cost sustainable in the long term? * IKEA’s management philosophy; â€Å"Our vision is to create a better everyday life for the many people. Our business idea is to offer a wide range of well-designed, functional, home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible can afford them. and all its activities is founded on its mission of offering wide variety of functional furniture for the house, of a quality and at a price affordable by a majority of people. This mission shows IKEA’s competitive advantage, positioning strategy and marketing mix. Tailoring IKEA’s stores and product to local tastes will cause IKEA to change its mission, to lose its competitive advantage and to redesign its positioning strategy and marketing mix.